I really don't understand what is going on and I'd love if someone could help me with that. Whenever I text something the letters are just pixelated and weird, some of them are just fine (like F and H) but all there others letters are just wrong. I don't know if the problem is the font type, also because this occurs with all my fonts. I really don't know what happened! I'll show you a picture to better understand. This happen just with Photoshop, Illustrator is completely fine.
As you said, this is happening with all the fonts and in Illustrator it is okay (as a vector design app). So I guess the problem could be the size/resolution of the document. Maybe in Image -> Image Size check the size and the resolution and see if it makes sense or not.
Another thing that could be the reason is Anti-Aliasing. But as I see in screenshots, the pixels are so big so I don't think that it could be the issue, But have a look.
It would seem you are creating tiny images. In your bottom screenshot your zoom level is 827% and your image is still not covering your entire screen.
Try creating an image from a preset like Print > A4 or Web > 1920x1080. Add a text with a font size of at least 20pt. (Window > Character will show you the text controls.) This should give you normal text. If it doesn't, there is some serious issue going on with your Photoshop install.