What I would do...
(This is quick and a tad sloppy.)
Start with a few primary shapes.
The stacking order of the shapes is important.
Shapes are stacked largest to smallest.
Object > Blend > Make and
Object > Blend > Blend Options
I probably could have put one more shape between the largest and the next size down, but this still works.
Then I add the perspective lines...
Note that this all does not exactly mimic the spacing, and divisions in your original. It's an approximation to get the same general set up. The original has some slight curves to the perspective. This, while possible presents a challenge too great to try and detail here.
Now I'd set up a palette of colors...
These are ordered the same as the color order in the image. From outside in, the colors are in this order for every section of the image, then repeated.
Select the Blend and choose
Object > Expand and when the window pops up, just check
Object and click
OK. (You can make a copy of the blend object first, in case you want a backup of it as a live blend)
Then I'd select all the paths and set the stroke to
None via the Stroke Panel.
I'd then grab the Live Paint Bucket Tool, click once to convert the paths to a Live Paint Object....
And from here,it's a matter of using the arrow keys and clicking with the mouse. Click once to fill a section with a color, tap an arrow key to move to the next color, click again, tap an arrow, click again, repeat...
(The gif makes yellows kind a look the same. But they are the 2 yellows from the color palette above.)
I didn't do the entire thing, but you can see below, even a bit incomplete, the illusion works. From here it's just a matter of refining things overall and being a bit more precise with line placement and the blend steps.
Ultimately, it's the pattern of colors in perspective that creates the illusion. You really don't have to precisely match your original image.