Just a quick correction. You are referring to PPI, not DPI.
DPI is Dots per inch, and it states how many droplets of ink, or laser-generated dots are produced on a laser printer or the generation of plates per inch. These numbers normally vary from 600 on a home laser printer to 3200 on a plate. This number is dependant on the specific hardware. You can sometimes reduce it for some specific reasons, for example, speed or quality of the substrate.
PPI is Pixels per Inch is how you distribute the pixels present on your image on a real-life print, which has a specific size. This is not a fixed number, it is a relationship. The number is "elastic".
Take one typical 24Mpx photo. This has 6000x4000 pixels. If you print it on a B1 paper you can enlarge it and the result is around 152 PPI.
100 cm to inches => 39.37
6000px / 39.37 = 152.4 PPI.
300 PPI is "standard" but more by "convention" than as a "rule". When you are doing commercial print on coated paper, the standard is to use 150 of another unit called LPI. And to smooth things on the conversion of the image (by screening it) the standard is double that number on the original file.
On a print made on an inkjet plotter, you do not screen it. The gradients are achieved by dithering them.
This means that you could use a 150 PPI image to have similar "quality" as a printed magazine, or go from there.
200PPI can be considered a good quality for a photographic print, but you can go for the 300PPI simply because it is a number we are used to work with.
B1 is a big file but still workable enough.
On larger prints, you can forget the PPI, and work with the same file, for example, a 24Mpx photo. The reason is that the bigger the print, the further away you are normally from to see it.
This means that the PPI needed for a billboard, can be 30PPI or even 1PPI for example.
In short. No. You do not need to use more than 300PPI in almost any case.
Here is a graph showing this relation between a file of defined pixel size, and the print size.
I am adding this because of the specific comment. I will go more in-depth here:
I just wanted to know if the typical printer can print at any dpi values in between 300 and 600
Again, the correction. PPI, not DPI. <= (This is really important)
A printer can print, let's say 1200 DPI. If the specific data on your image is 1 bit only, then the printer could use the data on a 1to1 base. 1 1bit px => 1 dot of the printer. So you could use a 1200 PPI 1 bit file.
If the image is a standard 8-bit per channel file (a grayscale image, a 24-bit color image, or a 32-bit CMYK file) then the dots of the printer need to somehow translate the possible gradient values into a visible printed gradient. This is where the additional LPI unit is useful. This conversion process gives us the relationship between how many variations of tone I can reproduce maximizing the resolution.
The relationship is normally 16:1 this is. A 2400DPI printer can print 256 grayscale tones using a 150LPI. 2400/16=150.
and if there are standard values in between. I understand that 300 is enough but I will aim for the highest value I can
Some specific resolutions for Art prints use 200 LPI. This normally uses a 400 PPI file. But the result is similar to a 200PPI dithered print (as I said before). So, a 300PPI is in fact more than you actually need.
So, a "standard" value is 400PPI. But again... this is not a standard. It is not even conventional because too few cases use it. You can also think of 450PPI as a nice number. Just making a 300x1.5 which is a nice number.
In your case, a nice number would be the resolution of the file. Forget for now the print dimensions.
- 16k px? Nice.
- 6,000 pixels on the longest side? This is a normal 24Mpx photo
- 12,000 on the longest side? I like this number as the biggest number I would work with just because it rounds my graph nicely. There is no need to go beyond this number unless you are using a zoom-in feature on an electronic media.
One additional question would be if humans can see more than 300PPI on normal conditions. Take a look at these discussions on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retina_display
Yes, we can talk about some retina resolutions of 366PPI or 400 ish or more. But printed resolutions have a fuzziness due to the printing itself, the absorption of the paper, etc, which makes it difficult to notice the difference beyond 100-150PPI for a photo. We are more perceptive on some specific elements like text. But the limitations are dependant on the print device, paper, contrast, etc.