Needs help on whether this design is completely hand-drawn or multiple images ran through filter gallery and tweaked with brush tool
One thing does not exclude the other.
The image is obviously hand-drawn. There is no skull on the planet that looks like that.
And then it has, of course, somewhat we could call manipulation. Manipulation is an interesting word, which also comes from a roman root word manipulus, based on the word manus (hand). So manipulation is also a word that means "hand-ling". The manipulation in this case is a pass-thru a Xerox machine, to make it is a photostatic image, therefore having an "analog filter". You could also fake a pass thru a photocopier in Ps.
The image has little complexity. One could argue that you could draw some parts one day, let's say the skull, and sometime after paste over it the wires, so probably yes, you could composite something like that with multiple hand-drawn images.
If what you are asking is that if you take a photo, and make look like that, with normal means or normal software, no... But these times you should never say it can not be done with some AI filter somewhere.
It's clearly hand drawn in my perception.
Similar to Pusshead works. Which gained notoriety though his/her work for Metallica.
(I don't know if that specific image is a Pusshead creation, it's merely a similar style.)