That won't work the way you are trying to do it. A clip set using your method will always be invisible.
However, you can copy the clipping path before clipping, then do the clip, then do Edit > Paste in place, and add a stroke and no fill to the pasted copy of the path. Then group everything.
Another method is to use a feature that is somewhat hidden in Inkscape. If you use a clipping group instead of setting a clipping mask, then you can use a stroked object, and the part of the stroke which is inside the group will remain visible. You may need to double the stroke width as only half of it will be visible.
Here's how to do it: Add a stroke and no fill to the object you are going to use to clip. Select both the raster image and object to clip, then right click, and choose "Set clip group". - in older versions of Inkscape this was "Create clip group".
Note: This creates a slightly different construction in Inkscape compared to a regular clip. When you use a clipping group it creates a group, and inside that, a clip group, and the objects themselves can be found within that clip group. This can be useful particularly if you want to edit the path without releasing the clip.