Is there a term for such an image, and what software is used to create a graphic like the following image, for example? It looks like some kind of vector image built from basic shapes.
The view is called isometric projection (or simply isometric).
There are tons of tutorials online on how to draw such images.
The style is pretty minimal. It could probably be called Flat Design or perhaps Flat Design 2.0 because of the use of gradients.