I'm not sure you are fully understanding what the Photoshop simulation is showing you here. It shows you what these colours look like for someone with colour blindness. You can't export this as it's only a preview, and it wouldn't be any use anyway. It is simply showing how a colour blind person will see the colours, it's not a solution or some kind of filter you can add to help colour blind people to differentiate colours. You are kind of trying to do this backwards.
Colour blindness support would be achieved by checking that your designs still work if someone is colour blind. That would likely mean you'd need to manually adjust the colours in your design, then check if it still looks OK when you simulate colour blindness. I don't think there is a way to automate this. There are just too many variables involved - not just colours. There are many other factors that can affect colour blind accessibility, such as contrast, layout, graphics, not to mention the fact that there are also several different kinds of colour blindness.
One method that might simply things a bit is to view your designs in monochrome (black and white). If it still works/functions and you can still differentiate the various functions easily, then it will probably also be accessible to a colour blind person. If there are issues, concentrate rather on the contrast between different elements, to make them easier to differentiate.
One of the basic rules of accessibility is to try (where possible) not to rely on colour alone to communicate with your users. Some things are always going to cause some issues though. For example, if you are using colours for charts/maps/graphs which rely on a colour key of some kind, or perhaps even a graphics heavy application such as a game. It might be better to have an option to change the display to a high contrast mode.
There is also a software tool called Visolve which claims to be able to help colour blind people by adjusting colours on a computer display to make them more easily distinguishable given the various colour blindness conditions. Perhaps this is something you might want to look into.