As stated in the question.....
The Pilcrow (¶) designates paragraphs.
§ is a section symbol, similar to the pilcrow.
According to English.StackExchange.com there's no universal symbol for chapters.
(English.se would probably be a better place to ask - since that is more likely where writers will be found - but chances are it'll be a duplicate there.)
Beyond chapters, sections, and paragraphs - I don't know what other symbols one would expect. There are no symbols for a "word" or "sentence".
Front/back matter is usually designated by a change in page numbers, i.e. Roman numerals rather than Latin - or alpha glyphs rather than numerals. Footnotes are designated by size and placement.
However, you could try perusing some standard punctuation lists to see if anything there is what you need.