What is the industry standard term for a set of color guidelines for a brand identity?
- Logo Usage Guidelines
- Brand Identity Guidelines
- Something else?
As Scott mentioned "whatever works". There does not seem to be any strict term, however searching for "brand guideline", "brand guide", or "brand style guide" appears to produce the most authoritative results. Substituting "Identity" for "Guide" will also yield good results.
It should be mentioned that these guides do far more than dictate color usage, I highly recommend reading some samples for anyone who is interested. For examples check out this list: http://www.logodesignlove.com/brand-identity-style-guides