I'm embarrassed to say I've struggled with this for months. Luckily, is seems I'm not the only one. Unluckily, most people have only given half answers, then reference another half-answer. Here is what has worked for me, using color swatches as an example:
- Each panel or toolbar dropdown that references color libraries has an icon in the lower left corner that looks like a stack of books. Hovering over it should say "Swatch Libraries menu". Click this icon to open a dropdown menu showing the applicable libraries. Click the library you want opened.
Unfortunately, this opens that swatch library in a new panel, rather than opening the set of swatches into your artwork like any sane person would assume. I'm sure there is a good, logical reason Adobe chose this behavior for their software. It probably makes sense to a graphic artist, but since I'm just a scientist with OCD and a heavy sense of sarcasm, it's lunacy to me.
- In the new panel, select the colors you want available in your document. If you want them all, click on the first swatch (top left) then Shift-click the last swatch (bottom right).
- From the new panel, in the top right corner is an icon of three parallel, horizontal lines. This opens yet another dropdown menu with a bunch of sorting options we don't care about, and one thing we do.
- The top button in the dropdown is "Add to Swatches". Click this button.
- Enjoy your color swatches, now that they should show up in every toolbar and panel you expected them to be in.
Again, why Adobe chose this roundabout is beyond me. It seems they decided to over complicate a simple task that every user needs to do with every new graphic they create, in order to simplify a task that only master-level graphic artists would use, and one that can be done with a single button.