If you have no previous graphic design experience then I would suggest that before you go ahead and start designing for Android you have a go at mastering the basics of graphic design. Once you are comfortable with the basics then you can start to look into designing for a specific platform.
Equally by learning the basics of graphic design you will find that you see which tools and software you need to use to accomplish what. Something like this collection of graphic design tutorials should help you to learn the basics which you can then build on.
Once you have mastered that then casting an eye over the Android Guidelines can provide invaluable insight into how to create designs for Android apps.
As far as whether Illustrator is the best platform to learn on then it's a bit of a subjective question, so long as you are producing vectors or rasters (vector is preferable though) of the correct sizes (ldpi to xxhdpi) and which follow the guidelines then you shouldn't run into too many problems as far as Android is concerned.
Illustrator has a lot to recommend it to an Android designer such as the very sharp lines it produces. It's main feature is that it produces vectors as standard allowing for very clean scaling which is imperative as devices get higher resolutions. It also has the incredibly useful "Save for Web and Devices" feature which reduces the size of an image without losing quality. This article explains what Illustrator has to offer the web designer, the majority of which is transferable to an Android designer, especially the bit about 9-patches. That said any Adobe product is potentially a steep learning curve and may cause serious headaches before you manage to master it.
I know a lot of mobile designers that use Photoshop to design in, it's still capable of providing vectors and can produce some very nice effects too. If you're on a Mac then Sketch is a great little app for designers as well. It's worth playing about with a few of the industry leading programs to find the one that suits you.
If you decide that Illustrator is the way to go then there are plenty of tutorials to help you learn how to create great designs such as this one, which is aimed at web design but shares many of the principles of mobile design. You can also download the Android stencil pack from Google to help you get started.