Is there a way in Inkscape to set the boundaries of the svg file the way they would be set if you export as a bitmap?
I want that there's no whitespace above, beneath, right or left of the object that I select.
In the latest version of Inkscape (0.92.2 at this time), you can go to Edit → Resize Page to Selection or press Ctrl+Shift+R.
To modify the document bounding box:
You can add margins if you like
Another way is to make a keyboard shorcut by going to Edit -> Preferences -> Interface -> Keyboard Shorcuts and searching for
You should find the "Fit Page to Selection Or Drawing" there.
Left click the shortcut column (blank space) to assign a shortcut.