I really want to do this kind of effect where it looks like a person is disintegrating away, but I have no idea what it is called:
THanks To Bala's clue in the comment.... I found the original source photo....
It's merely Adobe Photoshop's Oil Paint Filter
Here's one with these settings:
This is a completely new image generated by running the oil paint filter on the same source photo. This is not merely a reposting of your sample image.
The Oil Paint filter mentioned in Scott's answer was removed from Photoshop in version CC-2014. For those using Windows, Adobe has recommended using the GREYCstoration plugin:
Oil Paint is a very cool filter, but relied on a very large and complex code library used for an outdated technology (Pixel Bender) that is no longer supported.
Workarounds for Oil Paint:
Update/note: Here’s a windows only plug-in which may be useful discussed here: http://www.modelmayhem.com/po.php?thread_id=926714
Update: It's back as of CC-2019 (thanks @Tetsujin)