Also to add to Ryan's answer they are sometimes termed as:
- vinyl lettering
- die cut stickers
- plotted decal
- plotted lettering
- cut vinyl
I would advise contacting your local print/sign shop for a quote. There are some great custom sticker companies that specialize in thermal printed stickers online but you appear to be wanting them to be die cut not like this:
Decal work courtesy of Sticker Mule.
I am also a little biased for thermal printing stickers with a Gerber but that's because I grew up using one. Some sign shops that do run thermal printing can run them through a plotter and die cut it out for you.
(had to bust out an old pic of the thermal printing process):
If you are not wanting printed but actual vinyl ONLY I would make sure to address that (as in I want actual colored vinyl not printed) which has pros and cons. The pro is that it is thinner because it doesn't have to be laminated. Some people don't laminate thermal printed decals but some argue you should because theoretically it can fade over time. The con some argue without a laminate your sticker inst protected.
Be careful on and ask what brands of cut vinyl they will be using because some brands have been known to be better quality than others. Some use a high gloss vinyl (in color) that can be thermal printed on but some manufacturers will recommend only printing on a certain white or whatever the machine can handle. You could get away with the company printing black on red vinyl. Again, ask how the sign shop is going to print them because cost can play a factor.
Do note that if you want it to be die cut like in your pic your price is going to go up apposed to something like this:
courtesy of stickermule
because a poor chap will have to weed all the excessive vinyl from the roll and mask it for you and that is a timely process compared to die cutting an outside area and handing you a roll of it.