Since you are not really getting answers here, I am going to go out on a limb. This is not likely to be what you are technically asking for, as it does not contain any direct objects about the time period you are interested it. Instead, I am drilling down.
It seems to me you are really asking two different questions.
What books would you suggest for a deeper more fundamental basis for
What books would you suggest for insight into 40ties, 50ties, 60ties
Read a little history.
The thing about graphic design styles in various periods is this: nothing exist in a vacuum. Graphics is informed by technology, architecture, history, wars, conflict, reactions against for or against something, and visuals affect art, craft and the design of objects.
Some of the strong visuals from 30ties and 40ties you could argue that conflict calls for strong, hard, impactful images. Images without doubt. Classically the propaganda posters of that period, from both/all three sides are bombastic, with nationalistic visuals. Never underestimate the importance of the limitations of the current printing technology. Read a little political history.
You might argue that Bauhaus architecture came "first", so that art, graphics and craft mirrored this. Then I would say: study a little architectural history. Be inspired by buildings, you might then see where the visual language comes from.
As for the 60-70ties, I have attempted to address some of that here:
What design and art concepts were art students/professionals discussing in the 70s?
Disclaimer: this is a pretty eclectic collections, and though it may not seem directly applicable, I believe these are useful, interesting and insightful on multiple levels.
They may be a bit heavy on the academic approach, but personally, I am sick and tired of literature that over-simplify and aim at quick commercial solutions. I think an insight into a less commercial approach is very useful.Not only for the thing you may produce, but not the least: from the joy you take from the process, with this knowledge behind it. It will inform and maybe alter your work. To me that is the thing: seeing with new eyes and stand on the shoulders of giants.
Bertin, Semiology of Graphics
First published in 1967, this it the basis for a lot of current understanding of visuals. Do not expect lots of pretty pictures. This is a tour de force of the analysis and use of "signs" in its widest sense. Interestingly, it is really becoming more and more relevant.
Male, Illustration: a theoretical and contextual perspective
A delightful, beautiful discovery of illustration in its widest sense.
Foucault, The Order of Things
Definitely a philosophical work; Foucault touches on a myriad of subjects such as literature, biology, arts and economics. It is sort of a "history of thought", but even the first chapter are interesting to a designer: anyone dealing with information.
Gleick, The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood
A history of information, information transfer. Use your head, and you will see the various time periods and visual languages in context.
Fletcher, The Art of Looking Sideways
Hugely inspiring, a rambling of graphics, art, quotes, insights, style, history.
Lupton,Thinking with Type
You might have had this in school; a very accessible take on typography.
Bringhurst, The Elements of Typographic Style
Pretty much the standing work on elegant and well-informed typography.
Norman, The Design of Everyday Things
He mainly concerns himself with physical objects, but it is not that much different from digital usage.