The Info Panel in InDesign will show you the width and height of a text frame.
You can also alter these measurements, with the text frame selected, in the Control/Options Panel across the top of the screen.
As for character and/or word count.... as @Vnovak pointed out... it depends upon size, face, etc of the type. There's no blanket answer for this.
Regarding the table... I don't understand this. If you are wanting to create a table with this information, i.e.:
- 50px by 100px text frame holds X words
- 100px by 150px text frame holds X words
That's not really possible due to the variation of the word count. You can certainly set up a table easily, but there's no way to get the word count for each size - 24pt Helvetica is going to allow less words than 10pt Myriad Condensed.