I think you're almost there and that the biggest issue is your loss of detail. Here's a method that I think would preserve a lot of that detail;
Take your original image and duplicate it (right click on the layer, hit duplicate).
Apply the bas relief effect as you have in the image above where you managed to get it as close as possible.
Select your filtered image in the layers panel and change the blend mode to lighten.
Toggle with the opacity of the filtered layer to reveal some details of the layer below (i.e the original image)
This should definitely get you close but of course it will need some fine tuning; here's a super quick example of the steps above (it's also worth noting that I applied a layer mask to increase the brightness and contrast some);
Of course you'll need to do some blending between your image and the background and could add shadows and highlights to further emphasize the figure if you liked but I hope I've covered the part that had ya stumped!
Best of luck (I also support the pain free option of Photoshop)!!
n.B I stole your two images (the original and the 'closest you could get it') for this composition so your current bas relief settings work just fine :)