I know monospaced type (font) means all characters have the same width. Is there a similar name for fonts where all character have the same width and height?
[As far as I know] There is no name for such fonts, because there are too few of them to create a categorization.
As mentioned in the comments, square or perhaps geometric could be possible search terms.
Your best option is to look for perfectly square uppercase fonts, as these are easier to find.
Here is a font with lowercase and a close-enough width-height ratio:
I think there is not! But feel free to make new declarations!
- Mono-area font: would be the weight or black.area for each character are the same
- Mono-size font: would be the same height characters
- Mono-square font: would be the one you will share with us - mono-space-size font (if you make one)