I want to make a text effect and for that I want a transparent background. My question arises from here; how do I get a transparent background? I am using Illustrator CC.
The background is transparent. It is just emulating paper so you can not see it. A block of white is different from the white background.
You can enable Photoshop like transparency grid by choosing View → Show transparency grid (ctrl / cmd + shift + D). On top of that make sure:
save for web has transparency enabled. The transparency grid is just a view option, the white background is still transparent, transparency grid or not. (one learns quite quickly to appraise the transparency even without the grid, which can be distracting)
The background already exists as transparent. If you're trying to export for Web and getting a white background then you may be using a image type in the export that doesn't support transparencies. PNG or Gif will fix this.
It's hard to tell what you're asking for.
On the top of the Adobe Illustrator menu bar choose "view" scroll down to "show transparent grid" and select it.
Additionally you can use the shortcut Shift+Ctrl+D