I don't think there is anything available to what you're asking but here are some alternatives to see other images quickly.
Using Adobe Bridge
This might be the closest application to what you're asking for. You can easily navigate images in Adobe Bridge and open them right away in Photoshop. Basically a file explorer that integrates with Photoshop. Just Alt+Tab (Windows) to switch programs on the fly.
Floating Document Windows
click on the image's tab and, with your mouse button held down, drag the tab down and away from the other tabs
Switching Tabs From The Keyboard
Ctrl+Tab (Windows) Command+~ (Mac)