Not sure if this is what you're looking for but for color adjustments, Levels and Curves are very good tools. And the term you might be looking for could be "levels".
The brightness/contrast could be considered a shortcut command that moves at the same time many levels and tones of colors, if I can explain it in this way. And the saturation is like boosting up the intensity of color with the contrast as well, so that could be considered as a shortcut command as well. They're practical but don't give you much information on what you're exactly doing to your colors, and saturating the colors too much or playing in this way with contrast can create over saturation and "break" your image. That's the problem with the brightness/contrast and saturation commands; they're nice shortcuts but you're working blindly with your colors, and sometimes you might want to have more control on ONE color/tone and not all of them at the same time.
With the levels, you can move individually each channel/color and their tones. It's a very precise tool when you learn how to use it. You can get to similar results as the commands for contrast and saturation.
There is this link from Adobe that could help you get started:
You might also be interested by the "curves" that act in a similar way than Levels do. If you know how to move your curves, you can get the same effect as playing with the saturation and contrasts quickly without "breaking" your colors, and for this, it's faster than using the Levels. There is a certain learning curve when using the curves but if you try it, you'll quickly understand how it works and how shaping your curves will change your colors.
Here is an intro link on the Curves: