I don't see anything in the above image but the following steps should produce fibers on a transparent layers, showing what is underneath. I am adding an image which has a background half red half blue to show you the effect.
- Add a white layer and apply the fibers filter
- Switch to Channels panel and Ctrl-click on the RGB layer icon at the top
- This will select the luminance information, you need to invert this, so press Ctrl-Shift-I
- Switch back to the Layers palette
- Now press Ctrl-J to create a new layer from the selection
- Turn off the original fibers layer
- Optionally, repeat step 2-3 on the fiber layer, add a new blank layer on top of everything, pick a color any color, fill the selection with that to have colored fibers. Instead of filling with the color, you can brush it where you want.
- Optionally, lower the opacity to desired level if too strong
This will show fibers resting on the background
Optionally, if you like denser fibers showing, target the new layer you made in step 5 and press Ctrl-J to duplicate which will add more density.
Here is an image that shows the fibers on colored background: