The traditional recomendation
For a 16:9 tv it is recomended a safe frame of 10% on each side and 5% on the top and bottom.
For example, a full HD 1920 would be 192px to the left, 192 to the right and 54 px on the top and 54 px on the bottom.
Oposite than print design, there is no "bleed" it is called a "safe frame" and it is to the inside. Make non important graphics full HD but the text leave it in this 1536x972 px frame.
Some other recomendations say that this measures can be smaller. 5% on the sides and 2.5 on the top and bottom.
My digital age recomendation
Seeing thoose recomendations they look from the pre digital era. Today I do not imagine any decent tv manufacturer that make a digital screen that imprecise.
So I would reduce that safe area to a fixed pixel size each side. Let us think that if we take the 2.5% safe area on top and bottom on a 1080 screen, it is 27px. I am lazy and I like round numbers. I'll put 30px to be conservative.
I would use a safe frame of 30 px each side if I do not completly controll the broadcasting conditions, but at least I know all the displays are HD (real FullHD or just HD).
If the broadcasting is controlled and it is digital 100% on a same model of displays... This safe area could be reduced to 0%.