Here's example picture below. How to make all the white areas transparent? Triangles, line and text. I have tried Pathfinder but I can't get it work correctly. Thanks in advance :)
You will want to expand all these white shapes before subtracting them from the black circle. Select each of them and choose Object > Expand. For the text, you can also choose Type > Create Outlines but that won't work for the regular shapes.
Then, subtract them from the black circle one by one. Be warned that you will have to ungroup the text after expanding. It might be convenient to turn the resulting shapes into a compound path (Object > Compound Path > Make) before subtracting. that way, you won't have to subtract every letter shape individually.