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Is there a way that I could paste sth from illustrator into a selection in photoshop? What I want to achieve is the effect which could be done in the same way in indesign(make a box and paste into it, that when i move the inside of the box the viewable area should be exactly the box and not the full pasted element)

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The Place Into-command doesn't work well with Smart Objects(in my experience). If you have made a selection before you paste your Illustrator artwork, you could save your selection: Select = Save Selection... Or, you could make a temporary mask on your current layer, and drag it onto your Smart Object layer, once placed.

Hope it helps you!

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Can't be done without scripting.

Here's a script that I frankensteined together.

A gif where I make a selection and trigger the script via hotkey.

enter image description here

// https://gist.github.com/joonaspaakko/50778ce2758ed22af0f4

// Pastes clipboard contents into the current selection. 
// - Relies on PS option: Preferences > General > Resize image during place
// - The script fits the contents. It could be modified to fill as well.
// - If clipboard contains vector objects, it will brought in as a smart object.
// - If clipboard is empty, the script fails horribly. Didn't bother to make it fail-safe..

var doc = app.activeDocument,
    preferences = app.preferences,
    rUnits = preferences.rulerUnits,
    sDimensions = selectionDimensions( doc, preferences );

var tempDoc = doc.duplicate( null, true);

var tempDocSelection = tempDoc.selection;

tempDoc.resizeImage( sDimensions[0], sDimensions[1] );

paste();

tempDoc.activeLayer.duplicate( doc );
tempDoc.close( SaveOptions.DONOTSAVECHANGES );

align();

applyMask();

preferences.rulerUnits = rUnits;

function selectionDimensions( doc, preferences ) {

    preferences.rulerUnits = Units.PIXELS;

    var selectionBounds = doc.selection.bounds;

    var sX1 = selectionBounds[0].value,
        sY1 = selectionBounds[1].value,
        sX2 = selectionBounds[2].value,
        sY2 = selectionBounds[3].value;

    var tempWidth = sX2 - sX1,
        tempHeight = sY2 - sY1;

    return [tempWidth, tempHeight];
}

function paste() {

    // =======================================================
    var idpast = charIDToTypeID( "past" );
        var desc1482 = new ActionDescriptor();
        var idAntA = charIDToTypeID( "AntA" );
        desc1482.putBoolean( idAntA, true );
        var idAs = charIDToTypeID( "As  " );
        var idsmartObject = stringIDToTypeID( "smartObject" );
        desc1482.putClass( idAs, idsmartObject );
        var idpushToDesignLibraries = stringIDToTypeID( "pushToDesignLibraries" );
        desc1482.putBoolean( idpushToDesignLibraries, false );
        var idFTcs = charIDToTypeID( "FTcs" );
        var idQCSt = charIDToTypeID( "QCSt" );
        var idQcsa = charIDToTypeID( "Qcsa" );
        desc1482.putEnumerated( idFTcs, idQCSt, idQcsa );
        var idOfst = charIDToTypeID( "Ofst" );
            var desc1483 = new ActionDescriptor();
            var idHrzn = charIDToTypeID( "Hrzn" );
            var idPxl = charIDToTypeID( "#Pxl" );
            desc1483.putUnitDouble( idHrzn, idPxl, 0.000000 );
            var idVrtc = charIDToTypeID( "Vrtc" );
            var idPxl = charIDToTypeID( "#Pxl" );
            desc1483.putUnitDouble( idVrtc, idPxl, 0.000000 );
        var idOfst = charIDToTypeID( "Ofst" );
        desc1482.putObject( idOfst, idOfst, desc1483 );
    executeAction( idpast, desc1482, DialogModes.NO );

}

function align() {
    // =======================================================
    var idAlgn = charIDToTypeID( "Algn" );
        var desc287 = new ActionDescriptor();
        var idnull = charIDToTypeID( "null" );
            var ref115 = new ActionReference();
            var idLyr = charIDToTypeID( "Lyr " );
            var idOrdn = charIDToTypeID( "Ordn" );
            var idTrgt = charIDToTypeID( "Trgt" );
            ref115.putEnumerated( idLyr, idOrdn, idTrgt );
        desc287.putReference( idnull, ref115 );
        var idUsng = charIDToTypeID( "Usng" );
        var idADSt = charIDToTypeID( "ADSt" );

        var idAdCV = charIDToTypeID( "AdCV" );
        desc287.putEnumerated( idUsng, idADSt, idAdCV );
    executeAction( idAlgn, desc287, DialogModes.NO );

        var idAdCH = charIDToTypeID( "AdCH" );
        desc287.putEnumerated( idUsng, idADSt, idAdCH );
    executeAction( idAlgn, desc287, DialogModes.NO );
}

function applyMask() {

    // =======================================================
    var idMk = charIDToTypeID( "Mk  " );
        var desc1556 = new ActionDescriptor();
        var idNw = charIDToTypeID( "Nw  " );
        var idChnl = charIDToTypeID( "Chnl" );
        desc1556.putClass( idNw, idChnl );
        var idAt = charIDToTypeID( "At  " );
            var ref313 = new ActionReference();
            var idChnl = charIDToTypeID( "Chnl" );
            var idChnl = charIDToTypeID( "Chnl" );
            var idMsk = charIDToTypeID( "Msk " );
            ref313.putEnumerated( idChnl, idChnl, idMsk );
        desc1556.putReference( idAt, ref313 );
        var idUsng = charIDToTypeID( "Usng" );
        var idUsrM = charIDToTypeID( "UsrM" );
        var idRvlS = charIDToTypeID( "RvlS" );
        desc1556.putEnumerated( idUsng, idUsrM, idRvlS );
    executeAction( idMk, desc1556, DialogModes.NO );

}

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