Karel mentions Geometric abstraction, which is close, but that tends to be flatter and simpler of composition, and have a more repetitive pattern.
This image is much more chaotic of composition, it's hard to find an actual pattern. It also shows different shades on relatively simple individual shapes, implying depth. Both Cubism and Futurism use this treatment of form, but they're generally more figurative:
Both these have fairly recognizable elements; a town and several ships. They're abstracted, but not quite abstract.