First of all: You do not want to resize, you want to wrap, bend, or map!
I never worked with Photoshop, but it seems like you should be able to use the following aproach. This explanation is for Gimp:
Draw your music sheet line on a transparent layer
In Gimp: Select the layer with the music line and use
Filters > Map > Map Object... to map your line onto the surface of a cylinder. In this dialog, you can also rotate the cylinder to your needs. Photoshop's equivalent seems to be
3D > New Mesh from Layer > Mesh Preset > Cylinder
The result should look like this. As you can see, my music sheet line was a bit short. The line should be a lot longer so that it won't be stretched.
Put the orbit over the planet.
Use the selection tool or the eraser to remove the parts of the orbit which should be occluded by the planet.
Photoshop also has other tools which can be used to achieve the desired effect, for instace the warp tool.