I'm new to graphic design and I want to create stick figure vector art, the kind you find on most start-up websites, that looks neat and professional. However, I have no clue on where to get started. Any ideas/tutorials? Example:
First of all, you'll need a program with which to create vector graphics. Inkscape is a good option -- it's free/open source so you don't have to spend an arm and a leg on it either. There are great tutorials for it too.
Get started by deciding what type of pose you want to make -- sketch out the basic shapes on paper first and get an idea where the arms and legs are, and where they bend.
You'll want to keep scale consistent across the whole set of icons you make. Figure out size ratios, like the body is the height of four heads, the legs are equal to the torso, etc, to keep the icons looking like they belong together to achieve that nice, sharp look you're going for.
If you do decide to go with Adobe Illustrator try this website to go over some basics.
You can screen capture a low resolution image.
But also you can use it as a basis to draw a vector based image in Inkscape.
You do not need to limit yourself to a strick stick figure. The images you posted are not.
Adjust the width of the torso and legs and give your image another style.