Neue Haas Grotesk / Helvetica
Both Bloomberg and Cards Against Humanity use Helvetica. Cards Against Humanity uses Helvetica Bold and Bloomberg uses Neue Haas Grotesk, which was the original name for Helvetica. I havn't looked at the version of Neue Haas Grotesk Bloomberg uses so there are probably differences to Helvetica, which has been adapted for various uses over the many years since it changed its name, but they are essentially the same font.
The Swiss Style
Broadly speaking the style is modernist. More specifically it is very reminiscent of what is known as the International Typographic Style or the Swiss Style, which became famous in the 1950s and 60s and influenced design around the world. The style makes use of bold sans-serif typefaces, use of negative space, grids, cleanliness and functionality.
Neo-grotesque sans-serif fonts such as Helvetica and Univers are hallmarks of the style:
Some examples of Swiss Style design:
There are elements in Bloomberg's design that don't quiet fit the Swiss Style, but parts of (and especially the points you mention) are very reminiscent of and obviously influenced by the style.