Every time I add an adjustment layer, I have to switch or fill the mask since it is always white.
Is there a keyboard shortcut or an option to change so that an adjustment layer will always have a black mask?
With regular Layer Masks you could hold Alt while pressing it for it to start out black. With Adjustment Layers there's no real way to do that. Fastest way is to hit Ctrl/Cmd+i to invert the mask after. If you use the same Adjustment Layers such as an S Curve or a Dodge Adjustment and Burn Adjustment Layers for example than you could make an action to do this in a single press.