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One of my favorite music groups has the following album cover:

enter image description here

Is there a name for the art style used to fill the text? If so, what is it, and where may I find more information on this style?

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This fill style is geometric: it is governed not by artistic considerations, but by a number of exact calculations. Therefore it's algebraic as well. It is most likely computer generated (on itself this does not say much, but in the context of graphics it's the opposite of intended 'natural-looking' drawings, which also can be generated by computers.)

It is abstract: the fill lines do not (visibly) attempt to form an underlying figure or idea, but are solely drawn based on 'logical' grounds.

The lines divide the interior of characters, and is therefore a tesselation - not an evenly distributed fill pattern. More specifically, since each polygon has exactly three points, this is a triangulation. Which, incidentally, does not describe the style but the method:

  1. extrude the letters in 3D to get the extra edge at the left hand side,
  2. convert to outlines so all curves are decomposed into a set of straight lines,
  3. (probably) reduce the number of points so there will not be too many extremely small triangles,
  4. triangulate the resulting set of points.

I'd call this style a "geometric abstract line fill". Narrowing it any more would focus on the specific techniques used here, which is too limiting to fall under "style" (those techniques would be "tesselated", and even more narrow "triangulated").

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    Due to the perspective I see at the edges of some of the letters, this looks like a wireframe view of 3D modeled text, showing the polygons that make up most 3D artwork. – Rob Craig Aug 1 '16 at 18:25

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