I'm trying to print an insert for an LP. Is there any place that does gold print on black paper, or do I need to look to silk-screening for this?
Yes places print Gold on Black. The two main methods are Foil Stamp or Metallic Ink such as one of Pantone's coated golds. Foil Stamp gives more of the embossed look. You can find comparisons of the two methods online.
You'll want to find a printer that offers these options and discuss it with them. Costs, delivery times, and of course how they want the file setup.