Is it possible to achieve this effect using a few filter combinations in Photoshop?
It shouldn't be too hard for you to color a drawing like that using Photoshop (I would recommend illustrator for this vectorial style, but any soft is good), but you would first need to have the outlines. If you have access to a tablet, you can try doing some lines and filling the spaces using colors and gradients. I would have a top layer for the outlines (transparent), and draw "boxes" of colors in layers behind it with the pen tool (colouring them using blending options). Another option, but with much more work I think, would be to use patterns (you can make them yourself) and apply those patterns to the color layers. That way you don't have to draw every single line with the tablet (or mouse, mouse is good too!)