Is there a program/resource that allows you to track graphics files—for instance an Illustrator or Photoshop file—and will list all InDesign or Illustrator files where that asset is used? Bridge doesn't seem to do that.
As far as I'm aware, no file has any no clue where it may or may not be used moving forwards.
Customarily assets can only be collected from the collective file, not the the individual pieces that make up the collection. I've never heard of any asset collection that can somehow magically know where the asset was used just by looking at the asset.
The link between files is created in the main file via a references to the included asset(s). There's no software I know that then embeds some sort of subscribe link in the original asset file(s) so they know where they are used.