When I resize an artboard to fit the content, the resulting arboard doesn't fit at all. Borders expand beyond the artboard unless I choose "inside" for border positions. Is this a known issue and is there a workaround for it except changing all border positions to inside?
This is working as intended -- the borders are on the outside of the object, so they don't count as part of it. (I personally use outside borders for separating panels, where I only want one or two borders actually shown, so this works great for me.)
What you could do is change the artboard width/height manually, or you could add an invisible background rectangle to maintain the right margins. If you're designing icons, think about having some consistent icon sizes rather than having each icon resized to fit -- it'll be much easier to work with, update, and replace each icon.