WOW, Veeeeery nice question.
In my opinion:
- Most prominent color in an image is a perceptual concept. On an image with a red circle in the middle, the most prominent color is red.
But the most abundant color is white.
Dominant color of an image. If you separate this from the perceptual concept, could refer to the total area used by a color. This could be the white.
Primary color of an image, could also is relative, and could need another reference.
For example, if that image is part of a website, we could think the red is the primary color on a white background.
But if the site is based on a "philosophy" where white represents purity, or light or something like that, White could be the primary color. So we need some context.
But this is not carved in stone. These are just some possible interpretations to the combination of words.