One really big humungus mistake designers make, is thinking: "Design first, think of the output later" In reality if someone thinks like that I would have some doubts he is a designer. Probably an illustrator, probably something else.
Design has a purpose, an objetive that is to be mass reproduced. (Versus some other things like art or crafts). This mass reproduction output is an intrinsec part of the design.
You can see the errors of not thinking this from the beginning. Wrong resolution, dimensions, proportions, color modes, file formats, etc.
So the first question
How and why these differences?
It is simply because the output media is different.
the workflows in the three formats are different.
Yes and no. The workflow depends on the design, and you always have some steps on preparation of the design. For example:
Choose the color model, at least the primary one. You always need to do this on every project. Some filters in photoshop do not work on CMYK, the photo is RGB, or you need to define spot colors, etc.
Vector or raster?
Among those decisions is the application to use. Illustrator, Indesign, Corel, Photoshop, Gimp, Inkscape, Scribus?
Those are decisions you always are making. But if you only use one application you assume you are not making that decision.
Leaving all that explanation behind. In reality the options you have:
Do I use a complete vector application for this or a limited one?
If you choose to use a complete application your choices are reduced to 3. Illustrator, Corel Draw and Affinity Design. Then it is simply a case of exporting to either file format, PDF (Forget EPS), SVG, Native Format, or even PNG, TIF or JPG.
If you choose specifically Inkscape, because the Color modes are limited, you are somehow sticked to RGB, you need to make some other tweaks to make it for print.
So the difference in reality relies on your design that includes the output format, and the application itself.