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Here are some samples from "Learn some Haskell"

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Here are samples from "Learn some Erlang"

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Here are "Illustrated Monads"

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And here is Bartosz Milewski's Category Theory caffe

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I wonder, how do they make such drawings. Why do they look the same and can I do the same easily?

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    The last two are just hand drawn. The ones before simply made to look hand drawn, or digitally hand drawn. – Cai Feb 11 '17 at 16:49
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I don't know much about computer illustration, so I'll go into the last two ones displayed that are hand drawn:

  1. First the contours are drawn with a water resistant marker or soft graphite pencil.
  2. Watercolors are added.

If you prefer to use non-permanent ink or want lines very sharp you should draw the contours lightly with graphite first, then color with watercolor and lastly trace the graphite lines with ink after the watercolor has dried. This will guarantee a very sharp black in the lines since they won't get obscured or smeared by the watercolor.

Actually, it looks like the second image in your post is using a non permanent marker line that has been added before the watercolor (do you see the smears?) – so if you want that look use a non-permanent one :)

The last image displayed in your post is drawn on a paper with a notable grain that affects both how the lines and water colors look.

I guess you would have a similar drawing process in a computer program as well: First lines and then add a layer of colors under that.

Hope this was to some help and good luck!

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As already commented, they're drawn by hand. No slick curves, lines, circles, triangles, rectangles etc...with. exactly fitting color fills.

Another criteria: They illustrate mathematical or logical concepts. If one draws a frisky dancer and uses samelike lines and colors than has been used in the last example, you probably will see the difference.

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