HotDoor.com offers the CadTools plug in for Illustrator. It's designed to bring some CAD features into Illustrator, including dimensioning. HotDoor has been around since the 80s or 90s, so they aren't a "fly-by-night" developer in any sense.
I've never really used it in any sort of "robust" manner. So, I can't directly state whether it's suitable for you or not. But it's worth a shot. There is a free demo.
Most mechanical CAD applications can do this. Inducing:
- Fusion 360
- SolveSpace (free)
However note the computer does not know which dimension scheme to use so you would still need to tweak the results in most cases. Anyway please note that not all cads work this way for example Catia V5 does not and same applies to FreeCAD which attempts to be everything that is bad about Catia.
Anyway cad applications are bidirectional. So if you change the value of a dimension then the drawing will change to match suit.
Image 1: CAD applications retain dimensions and react to dimension changes