Have three copies of your shape with different colors in separate layers. Give to the top and middle layer blending mode = Multiply, the bottom layer can be normal. Drag them a little apart to make different blendings visible.
This works as well in Illustrator and Photoshop.
An example in Photoshop:
The same in Illustrator:
In Illustrator you do not need multiple layers, simply copy the shape twice.
The Appearance panel has row "Opacity". From there you find the blending mode. You can also open the Transparency panel for that.
This can create an illusion of 3D when the shapes are shifted only a little apart. Here are your numbers as an example:
(The commentators do not accept this as 3D effect because it resembles low quality CMYK printing. It also will have bad quality, if it's tried to print "as is" in CMYK. The colors are heavily beyond the printable color range)
But there exist much more plausible way to create 3D appearance. In Illustrator it's Effects > 3D > Extrude & Bevel:
In Photoshop there's available Layers > Layer Style > Bevel and Emboss for the same