A transparent shape can't cover anything.
What you can do, is subtract a copy of a shape from itself.
You start by a path, so make your text and logo (only works if they are of the same color or will force them to be of same color) a combined path. (Transform text to path, combine text-path and logo-path - Ctrl-K in the german GUI).
- duplicate them (ctrl d)
- move the duplicate a little to the side and up
- mark in addition to the copy (shift click) the original path
- build the difference with (ctrl -). The upper object in Z-axis will always be subtracted from the lower one.
For finer navigation, you might change the color of the duplicate. For even finer positioning, making it semi transparent might help.
Here I duplicated shape and text (black), made the duplicate the same color as the bg (white) and moved that to a little offset (sample left).
Font and shape are of the same color (black), so they can be combined to one path. Duplicating the path, moving it in the same way with a little offset but then making the difference between black and white shape (sample right).
The red rectangle in the background is there, to make the difference visible.