Check the image below (original here).
I want to create similar graphics (or map of Facebook Algorithmic factory). Which tools are used to generate these graphics?
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Looking through the tools I thought that RAW Graphs might be promising since I've come across D3.js in the past. So I clicked on it and looked at the gallery page: http://rawgraphs.io/gallery/
My hunch is RAW Graphs is what they actually used to generate the visualizations. I would guess there is a fair amount of learning resources out there for D3.js.
Also, I have not read this, but Data Visualization and Data Driven Design are good topics to look into: https://www.amazon.com/Data-Visualisation-Handbook-Driven-Design/dp/1473912148/
There's a class of software which is made for creating charts that describe dependencies between objects, actions and concepts. To find it search for Mind Mapping software.
Flowcharting software has often tools for creating mind maps, too.
Finally all in your example can be drawn with Inkscape, Illustrator or other general purpose vector drawing software, but mind mappers and flowcharters have less to choose form and some good templates so it's easier start with them if you are new in vector graphics.
Mind mappers and flowcharters also can keep automatically the looks consistent if you want to add something into already dense part. In general purpose drawing programs you are 100% in responsibility of even looks.
The following examples are from Open Office Draw (freeware). It is a drawing program that have some flowchart and mindmap drawing tools. Draw has quite well working flexible connectors available. There was no need to redraw the connectors between the shapes when the shapes were moved.