You need to develop a quality control checklist that works for you. I can share some of the tools I use personally, but that is not to say that they are the same tools that work for you.
Do you work with one printer on a regular basis? If so, ask them if they have a checklist for print ready artwork. A list like this might include items like whether you have included a bleed or not, whether your colors have been converted to CMYK (if they want that), etc.
If I am proofreading text, I try to check the text backwards--i.e, start at the last word and work my way back through the sentence. One of the ways that our brains get better at reading is by learning to recognize and process groups of words quickly without having to read each word individually. This is a great skill for improving our reading speed, but can come back to bite you when you are proofreading, because your brain has been trained to overlook doubled words or missing words. Proofing a sentence backwards can help you catch these kinds of errors more effectively.
I will tend to print out the mark-up or list of corrections that I receive from my clients, and then literally use a pen to check off the corrections as I make them. If I have taken notes I will add those to my list of necessary corrections and check those off as well.
Lastly, whenever possible, ask your printer for a print check before they do a print run. This requires that you are located somewhere near your printer. They will run one sample of your document that you can then go to their facility and inspect before they run the complete print run.
If you are not local, you might still be able to request a PDF proof--this is not the ideal way to proof a printed document, but there have been times I have caught mistakes (like missing images, missing bleeds, transparency issues, etc.) and corrected them before the complete project was printed.