Draw it, don't "trace" it . . .
Ideally, you sketch this out on paper to determine the minimal amount of elements necessary to convey the shape. Doing this "on the fly", so to speak, is a very haphazard method at best. There's no automated process which is going to yield fantastic "icon-like" results. It requires human intervention and an artistic eye to study the shapes, understand lighting, and determine what's needed and what's not needed.
No one creates iconic art like your Emmy example by opening a photo in an application and running some process. For even mediocre results, you have to draw the image, then refine. You don't start with a photo and run some filter on it.
I would do this via Illustrator as well. But it could be done with Photoshop. Illustrator's actually better because Photoshop always snaps to pixels so it won't allow you to always place anchor points where you want them.
First, if possible, find a larger, better source of the Saint Sofia statue at the angle you want. That shouldn't be too difficult.
Open the image in Photoshop, grab the Pen Tool and draw a path around the outer edge of the statue, following the contour of the shapes:
Once you have the outer path, draw paths to show the reverse areas or "holes" in the shape which will provide more definition overall:
This is where things become far more "art" than "process". You have to experiment with what is and is not necessary to convey the overall image but still not superfluous.
A quick, dirty, and unrefined, example:
There are several areas that would require exploration into creating the proper definition to suggest shapes without actually drawing the shapes.
Overall this is the basic method I'd use. Again, I'd use Illustrator after sketching all this by hand on paper to determine the optimum shapes to use.