I have actually been designing whitepapers and text-heavy documents/financial reports/etc for a long time. Hundreds of them, and some in 15+ languages. You could say I kind of specialize in this. All of them, without exception, have been laid out in InDesign and the finished product was a PDF (high and/or low resolution, depending on the purpose of each job).
For a document similar to your example, one would either create a custom template or buy and customize a ready made one. Again, most likely in InDesign, since this is kind of the standard, but alternatives do exist. However, note, in the business world, pretty much everybody uses InDesign.
The good part here is, once a template has been set up, it can easily be replicated and applied for future work.
Some corporate clients would have their own ready-made templates delivered as part of their branding packages. Some of these will be very detailed and actually include rules for constructing and formatting graphs, charts, tables, etc.
Still, there are many whitepapers and ebooks out there which circulate in a pretty basic Word-like design. Either in plain DOC format or as PDF exports.