I think there is some major color profile confusion going on here.
When I download the low res version with the vibrant colors you like, I notice that its color profile is Adobe RGB. The hi res version is Untagged RGB but I assume it's sRGB.
Here are the two images side by side:
If I wrongly assign Adobe RGB to the hi res version, it gets more vibrant and ...
You can apply the colors of the low-res image to the hi-res image quite easily, because our perception of the details is mostly based on luminosity and not on color or saturation(*).
Open the high-res image
File ➤ Open as layers the low-res image
Scale it up to match the hi-res image. This will make it blurry. Here is for instance, your image, artificially ...
Looking at the pictures you posted, it seems to me that the ones you consider "duller and less vibrant" are actually higher quality images, not just in resolution, but in color information.
This is a detail taken from the "duller" image:
This is the same detail from the "more vibrant" one:
It seems obvious to me that a lot of ...
I'm going to suggest you don't use Photoshop to make your shape, but use Illustrator instead. It's much easier. Of course you can then use the vector shape as a mask in Photoshop.
Create a pattern Brush in Illustrator. All you need is a single shape like this. A square with a circular piece cut out. I used Path Finder Minus front to create it. Then drag it ...