You can create PNG image with transparency and then convert it to SVG containing a color information as JPEG and an alpha channel as a grayscale mask. Here is a tool I wrote to do it https://github.com/igrmk/transpeg
Yes, there is enough data on that file and you do not need even to resample it.
An output of 150ppi is almost imperceptible to differentiate from 300ppi on an inkjet-based print.
As you have access to a printer you can run an experiment yourself. Print a small file, probably a cropped section of the file you need to print just changing the resolution to ...
Speaking empirically, as someone who frequently prints to canvas, those dimensions are good enough for your output size.
Upscaling will gain no real detail. Good upscaling algorithms will give an appearance of preserving detail, but in fact you really won't see much difference on a canvas print above about 150 dpi.
Your quoted size approximates to 120x90 cm. ...
I know this is old but the accepted answer goes to a link and that tutorial is not very clear.
Windows installation steps
Download the latest ZIP source file (do not download the script only)
Copy the plug-in file WebPShop.8bi located in the zip file, bin\WebPShop_0_3_0_Win_x64 to the Photoshop ...