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Darkroom manipulation The term originates in the photographers dark-room, and sadly I am old enough to have literally "dodged and burned" photos under the enlarger! An "enlarger" is simply understood as a projector. It beams light through a negative and onto photographic paper. In much the same the way the lens of the camera "printed" the light onto the ...


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It is a monospaced font, and these are preferred because it is easier to see if something is added or not to a document. For example, imagine that this document involves a number 1000 if space is not perfectly defined you could add a 1, 10001 and this is a totally different number. Sometimes these documents are even filled with slashes----------------- so ...


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The term "pica" refers to the size of the font. Long before type fonts had sizes in standardized (more or less) units, the sizes had names. Pica is roughly equivalent to 12 pt expressed in today's terms. Royal was reserved exclusively for the King's use. (Proclamations, Wanted posters, etc.) It was roughly equal to our 72 pt size Agate is still used in ...


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Just to round out the answers so far, Billy Kerr found two early references to "dodge" in a photographic capacity in 1883 and 1889. A manual of photographic chemistry : theoretical and practical by Hardwich, T. Frederick (1883): An important advantage in this process is the following : That although it is one entailing the operation of a so-called “ ...


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If you're asking this question, you need to read the Meggs. Philip B. Meggs & Alston W. Purivs: Megg's History of Graphic Design. Wiley dot com Megg's History of Graphic Design Definitive, thorough and well researched. A benchmark. Hope this helps.


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Surely most of us understand well that the effect of a low pass filtering can be neutralized by applying a complementary high pass filtering to a copy of the same image and by adding pixel by pixel the RGB values of the both filtered versions. To clean someone's portrait image we apply Gaussian Blur to the image as a special form of low pass filtering and ...


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According to dictionary.com: ORIGIN OF DODGE First recorded in 1560–70; of obscure origin It means to evade or avoid, as in "to dodge/evade the ball in a game of dodge-ball" or avoid as in "to dodge/avoid a difficult question" In our darkroom we used to call it "blocking" the light, so the term "dodge" in Photoshop was quite foreign to me until I ...


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There's a 1952 document from MOMA called "Olivetti, design in industry". You can find it here https://www.moma.org/documents/moma_catalogue_2741_300159054.pdf There are some covers and posters, but unfortunately the PDF is black & white.


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I don't know if this will answer your question or not.... I'm uncertain if anyone here who is not directly affiliated with NASA or the joint agency could provide any answer. In the past I've worked for the Department of the Army. Not quite NASA, but similar. When joint ventures were undertaken or corporate sponsorship was involved, there was an office ...


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