I don't think this is created from a gradient. As mentioned in comments it seems to just be a simple geometric pattern consisting of a lot of circles on top of some rectangles.
You could probably use all sorts of transform magic to make it easier, but here I just want to show you how to draw the pattern with the mouse and keyboard using Ellipse Tool, ...
I would try the following image trace options. You want to make sure your corners are set to 100%. The end result is about 41kb SVG.
I think it turns out pretty good.
You could also try Object -> Create Object Mosaic. You will have to mess around with the amount of tiles you use.