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The math facts are already written in plain English language in older answers. But the histogram is not the only place where you will meet linear vs. perceptual or as well non-gamma corrected vs. gamma corrected. The confrontation occurs when you start a new image. To keep beginners less confused the advanced options are fortunately hidden and GIMP offers by ...


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One is gamma-corrected (perceptual) and one is not (linear). The mean value is of course the mean value of the values as displayed in the histogram.


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Human vision is not linear, like most of our senses. Meaning that 2 times the light received by your eye does not get interpreted as 2 times as bright. Your monitor and your image files are encoded in a semi logarithmic space in order to have data where it counts most.* (8 bits of color would be really insufficient without this). In essence this means that ...


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